Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ecosystemic Psychology Essay
Ecosystemic Psychology Ã¢â¬â Definitions Definition Epistemology Epistemology is Ã¢â¬Å"the study of the origin, nature and methods, as well as the limits, of knowledge; it is also how things can be known, thus a framework for describing and conceptualizing what is being observed and experienced and it also specifies the nature of the relationship between the researcher (knower) and what can be knownÃ¢â¬ (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 2006, p. 6; Terre Blanche, Durrheim & Painter, 2006, p. 559; Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004, p. 507). Theory is Ã¢â¬Å"a general principle or a collection of interrelated general principles that is put forward as an explanation of a set of known facts and empirical findingsÃ¢â¬ (Reber, 1985). Example If for example the researcher needs to rely on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective experiences of day to day living in an old age home, the researcher could adopt an interactional epistemological stance and make use of interviewing as a method of enquiry. This is reflective of the interpretive approach, Ã¢â¬Å"which aims to explain the subjective reasons and meanings that lie behind social actionÃ¢â¬ (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 2006, p. 7). Thus, epistemologically the observer needs to be empathetic and subjective in his/her approach. Theory The theory of psychosocial development by Erikson (1963) Ã¢â¬Å"holds that psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth take place together and that at each stage of life we face the task of establishing equilibrium between ourselves and our social worldÃ¢â¬ (cited in Corey, 2009, p. 66). For example, very early in life the infant learns to trust or mistrust. If a baby has a careless parent, that does not meet the babies basic needs the baby can easily develop mistrust. Model A model is Ã¢â¬Å"an ideal, a standard, an example set up as worthy of imitation or copyingÃ¢â¬ (Reber, 1985). BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social learning theory is well known in the discipline of psychology. Bandura did an experiment with a Ã¢â¬ËBobo DollÃ¢â¬â¢ in which he used a live model of observational learning where children observed adults acting violently toward the doll. In the end the children imitated similar behaviour toward the Bobo Doll (http://psychology.about.com/od/ developmentalpsychology/a/sociall earning.htm). Technique A technique is Ã¢â¬Å"a fairly specific, learned procedure or set of procedures for accomplishing some specific goalÃ¢â¬ (Reber, 1985). Systematic sampling is an example of a technique. In systematic sampling a Ã¢â¬Å"fixed distance between elements is calculatedÃ¢â¬ (Durrheim & Painter, 2006, p. 135). For example 100 out of a sampling frame of 1000, the interval will be calculated as follow: 1000/100 = 10. Thus every 10th element will be selected until there is a sample of 100.